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The information on each page is compiled from several sources. Sources are listed by topic below.



“Teen Dating Abuse Fact Sheet,” New York State, Office for the Prevention of Domestic Violence, accessed July 5, 2021,

Antoinette Davis, “Interpersonal and Physical Dating Violence among Teens,” National Council on Crime and Delinquency, September 2008, 3,

Jamie DePolo, “Risk of Developing Breast Cancer,”, last updated July 14, 2022,

Emotional & Verbal Abuse

Winters, “How Can Advocates Raise Awareness”; Ann Pietrangelo and Crystal Raypole, “How to Recognize the Signs of Mental and Emotional Abuse,” Healthline, last updated January 28, 2022,

Karly Hemp, “An Adolescent Dating Abuse Prevention Curriculum,” SlidePlayer, accessed November 7, 2021,

Melinda Smith and Jeanne Segal, “Domestic Violence and Abuse,” HelpGuide (website), last updated January 2021,

“Is Emotional Abuse More Harmful than Physical Abuse?” MHS (Mental Health Services website), May 14, 2021,

Tracy, Natasha Tracy, “Effects of Emotional Abuse on Adults,” HealthyPlace (website), December 17, 2021,

“Emotional Abuse,” (website), accessed 2011.

“Characteristics of Healthy & Unhealthy Relationships,”, accessed November 7, 2021,


Healthy Relationships, Unhealthy Relationships, and Physical Abuse

“Healthy, Unhealthy and Abusive Relationships,” University of Colorado Boulder, Office of Victim Assistance, accessed July 3, 2022,

Kendra Anderson, “How to Tell if You’re in an Unhealthy or Abusive Relationship,” Mindsoother Therapy Center, June 10, 2018,

Break the Cycle (website), accessed 2012,

“Signs of Teen Dating Violence,” Teen DV Month (website), accessed October 23, 2021,

“Early Warning Signs of Dating Violence,” RAINN (website), February 6, 2017,

“Teen Dating Violence,” Harbor House (website), accessed October 23, 2021,

“What Does Teen Dating Abuse Look Like?” New York State (website), accessed November 20, 2021,

“Is Your Teen in an Abusive Relationship?”, last updated April 17, 2020,

Holly W. Cummings, “What Can You Do if You Think Your Teen Is in an Abusive Relationship,” American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists, October 2020,

“Parents | Help Your Son or Daughter,” Reachout, October 31, 2018,

Lisa Davis, “10 Signs Your Teen Is in an Unhealthy Relationship,” Family Resources (website), January 4, 2019,

Kate Taylor, “10 Signs Your Friend Is in an Abusive Relationship and Might Need Your Help,” Safehorizon, January 2018,

“What is Dating Violence?” Violence Prevention Works! Accessed October 23, 2021,

“Signs to Look for in an Abusive Personality,” City of Knoxville (website), accessed June 24, 2022,

“Am I in a Healthy Relationship?”, February 2017,

Sexual Coercion

Silvi Saxena, “Peer Pressure: Types, Examples & How to Respond,” Choosing Therapy (website), December 9, 2020,

Michele Ybrra and Kimberly Mitchell, “Prevalence Rates of Male and Female Sexual Violence Perpetrators in a National Sample of Adolescents,” JAMA Pediatrics 167, no. 12, December 2013, 1125–1134,

Liz Claiborne, Inc., “Teen Relationship Abuse Survey,” Break the Cycle (website), 2006, accessed 2011,

Liz Claiborne, Inc., “Teen Relationship Abuse Survey,” Break the Cycle (website), 2006, accessed 2011,

“Emerging Issues Facing Tweens and Teens,”, accessed October 30, 2021,

Laura Kann, Tim McManus, William A. Harris, Shari L. Shanklin, Katherine H. Flint, Joseph Hawkins, Barbara Queen, et al., “Youth Risk Behavior Surveillance—United States, 2015,” Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report 65, no. 6, June 10, 2016, 10–11, 71,

Miranda Hitti, “Teen Sex May Take Emotional Toll,” WebMD, February 6, 2007,

Kirk Johnson, Lauren Noyes, and Robert Rector, “Sexually Active Teens Are More Likely to Be Depressed and to Attempt Suicide,” Heritage Foundation (website), June 3, 2003,

“Sexual Risk Behaviors Can Lead to HIV, STDs and Teen Pregnancy,” Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, last updated June 14, 2021,

“Sexually Transmitted Diseases—Adolescents and Young Adults,” Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, last updated April 8, 2021,


“Fast Facts: Preventing Teen Dating Violence,” Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, last updated February 28, 2022,

Michele Cacardi and Ashley Bujalski, “When Love Hurts: How To Avoid Teen Dating Violence,”, July 18, 2016,

Melinda Smith, Lawrence Robinson, and Jeanne Segal, “Depression Symptoms and Warning Signs,” HelpGuide, last updated October 2021,


Avanti Adhia, Mary A. Kernic, David Hemenway, Monica Vavilala, and Frederick Rivara, “Intimate Partner Homicide of Adolescents,” JAMA Pediatrics 173, no. 6 (April 15, 2019): 571–577,

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